Projects

Last modified on Friday, September 16th 2011 at 12:32 PM.

Software-Product Lines in HealthCarE - SPLiCE (2011-)

The last couple of years have seen nevertheless a significant growth in criticism of HIS effectiveness in supporting more efficient healthcare services. It is generally understood that the inhibitor factors for physicians, clinics, or hospitals to adopt HIS fall into three main clusters, viz., organizational, environmental, and technological. The technological inhibitor factors can be summarized into:

  • high development cost;
  • lack of open-standardization;
  • technology-orientation; and
  • troublesome maintainability.

Recently, attention has been drawn to the potential of Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) in general, and OMG's MDA approach in particular, for overcoming inhibitor factors to the deployment of maintainable HIS. MDA allows for:

  • low development cost and (hence) reducing the backlog of potential applications;
  • enabling standards and interoperability;
  • platform-independence and lessened vendor lock-in; and
  • abstraction to deal with complexity and maintenance.

In this project, we propose a method that builds upon the potential that MDE—not the more particular MDA—has to offer to HIS. In fact, our MDE method shall provide additional evidence for some of the benefits just elicited above. However, in our vision, there are two main challenges yet that should be addressed for model-driven HIS to be able to stand for longer life spans:

  • Inherent complexity of clinical data modeling. This is an issue—specially if the clinical data model is to be built from scratch—either when developing a single HIS, or a family of HIS as is often the case for MDE. It requires too much attention from the development team, being it only one piece of the HIS development effort.
  • Ad-hoc architectural modeling. An effective use of architectural design techniques is specially required in the domain of HIS. Typically, families of HIS (e.g., prehospital emergency, epidemiological surveillance, intrahospital patient monitoring) vary within styles of system communication and control. We argue that these styles deserve research attention in order for us to develop HIS for maintainability and reuse.

Altogether, these two challenges have motivated us in the design of an MDE method that seeks a higher degree of maintainability and reuse by adhering to three main principles: transversalization of data models and architecture models, dualization of information and clinical data models, and stylization of architecture models. To support the envisioned MDE method on the generation of HIS skeletons, we are progressing work on the development of a software workbench fully-based on open artifacts. This software workbench, which is further detailed in Section~\ref{Method}, allows weaving together clinical data models described according to the openEHR specifications and architecture models specified in the Acme language.

We have been working out the proposed method primarily in two families of HIS: prehospital emergency healthcare and epidemiological surveillance.

Publications

  1. GOMES, A. T. A. ; ZIVIANI, A. ; SANTOS, V. U. P. ; MOREIRA, V. M. ; CORREA, B. S. P. M. ; TEIXEIRA, I. M. . Desenvolvimento Dirigido a Modelos para Aplicações em Saúde. In: XI Workshop de Informática Médica (WIM 2011), XXXI Congresso Nacional da Sociedade Brasileira de Computação (CSBC), 2011, Natal, RN.

Network Anomaly Detection and IP Traceback (2006-2010)

Currently, denial of service (DoS) and distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks are common in the Internet. Such attacks aim to make a network or a service provided by the network unavailable to requests coming from legitimate users. This typically happens when an attacker sends packets at a rate higher than the victim can process; and modern DDoS attacks occur with multiple distributed attacking sources simultaneously sending packets against a target victim.

The defense against (D)DoS attacks comprises three main different steps: (i) the detection of the attack, which is usually performed by intrusion detection and prevention systems; (ii) the identification of the route(s) taken by attacking packets, which can be provided by IP traceback systems; and (iii) the mechanism to block attacking packets at key points along the route(s) taken by them.

Detection is a crucial step towards efficiently diagnosing network traffic anomalies within an autonomous system (AS). Some recent related work on anomaly detection has relied upon entropy-based approaches to detect volume anomalies (i.e. significative changes in the volume of network traffic). These approaches typically adopt the classical Shannon entropy to perform detections. In contrast, based on the widespread evidence of long-range dependence of Internet traffic, we propose the adoption of nonextensive entropy—a one-parameter generalization of Shannon entropy—to detect network traffic anomalies within an AS.

Other important step in anomaly diagnosis—identification—is also under investigation in our group. Identifying the route(s) taken by attacking packets is a challenging task, for several reasons: (i) IP routing is solely based on the destination IP address carried by each packet; (ii) due to scalability restrictions, no information about packet forwarding is normally kept at the intermediate routers; (iii) attackers can be behind a firewall or protected by a private IP address, thus even if the network keeps track of the routes taken by attacking packets, such routes will usually point to network middleboxes as the sources of attacking packets; (iv) IP packets are not authenticated at the moment they are forwarded, allowing spoofed source IP addresses to be used in (D)DoS attacks; and (v) zombie hosts—remotely controlled by an attacker—are used for sending attacking packets and, in this case, their owners are unaware they are taking part in a DDoS attack. Previous work on IP traceback systems typically requires complete deployment of the system over the network, i.e., the system must operate on all routers in the network to properly traceback an ongoing (D)DoS attack. We believe this constraint limits the possibility of such IP traceback systems to be used in larger networks. We then propose two IP traceback systems—one for intra-domain and the other for inter-domain traceback—that can be partially and progressively deployed on networks.

Another topic within this area in our group is the detection of hidden traffic. One example is peer-to-peer (P2P) voice over IP (VoIP) applications (e.g. Skype or Google Talk), which commonly use Web TCP ports (80 or 443) as a fallback mechanism to delude restrictive firewalls. This strategy renders this kind of traffic quite difficult to be detected by network managers. To deal with this issue, we propose a method to detect VoIP calls hidden in Web traffic. We also propose specific metrics and investigate statistical tests intended to clearly distinguish Skype calls from HTTP traffic.

Publications

  1. CASTELUCIO, A.; GOMES, A. T. A.; ZIVIANI, A.; SALLES, R. M. Intra-domain IP traceback using OSPF. Computer Communications, 2010. (Accepted for publication.)
  2. FREIRE, E. J. P. ; ZIVIANI, A. ; SALLES, R. M. . On Metrics to Distinguish Skype flows from HTTP traffic. Journal of Network and Systems Management, v. 17, p. 53-72, 2009.
  3. CASTELUCIO, A. ; SALLES, R. M. ; ZIVIANI, A. . An AS-level Overlay Network for IP traceback. IEEE Network, v. 23, p. 36-41, 2009.
  4. CASTELUCIO, A. ; SALLES, R. M. ; GOMES, A. T. A. ; ZIVIANI, A. . Rastreamento Intra-domínio de Tráfego Utilizando OSPF. In: Workshop de Gerência e Operação de Redes e Serviços (WGRS), 2009, Recife, PE - Brasil. Anais do XIV Workshop de Gerência e Operação de Redes e Serviços, 2009.
  5. CASTELUCIO, A. ; GOMES, A. T. A. ; ZIVIANI, A. ; SALLES, R. M. . Intra-domain IP Traceback using OSPF. In: Latin American Network Operations and Management Symposium (LANOMS), 2009, Punta Del Este. Proceedings of the Latin American Network Operations and Management Symposium, 2009.
  6. FREIRE, E. J. P. ; ZIVIANI, A. ; SALLES, R. M. . Detecting VoIP calls hidden in Web traffic. IEEE Transactions on Network and Service Management (TNSM), v. 5, p. 204-214, 2008.
  7. CASTELUCIO, A. ; SALLES, R. M. ; ZIVIANI, A. . Evaluating the Partial Deployment of an AS-level IP Traceback System. In: ACM Symposium on Applied Computing - ACM SAC 2008, Track on Computer Networks (CN), 2008, Fortaleza. Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Computing - ACM SAC 2008, Track on Computer Networks (CN), 2008.
  8. CASTELUCIO, A. ; SALLES, R. M. ; ZIVIANI, A. . Uma rede sobreposta no nível de Sistemas Autônomos para rastreamento de tráfego IP. Revista Brasileira de Redes de Computadores e Sistemas Distribuídos, v. 1, p. 61-73, 2008.
  9. CASTELUCIO, A. ; SALLES, R. M. ; ZIVIANI, A. . Uma rede sobreposta no nível de Sistemas Autônomos para rastreamento de tráfego IP. In: XXVI Simpósio Brasileiro de Redes de Computadores - SBRC'2008, 2008, Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Anais do XXVI Simpósio Brasileiro de Redes de Computadores - SBRC'2008, 2008.
  10. FREIRE, E. J. P. ; ZIVIANI, A. ; SALLES, R. M. . Detecting Skype flows in Web traffic. In: IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium - IEEE/IFIP NOMS 2008, 2008, Salvador. Proceedings of the IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium - IEEE/IFIP NOMS 2008, 2008.
  11. ZIVIANI, A. ; GOMES, A. T. A. ; MONSORES, M. L. ; RODRIGUES, P. S. S. . Network Anomaly Detection using Nonextensive Entropy. IEEE Communications Letters, v. 11, p. 1034-1036, 2007.
  12. FREIRE, E. J. P. ; ZIVIANI, A. ; SALLES, R. M. . On Metrics to Distinguish Skype flows from HTTP traffic. In: V Latin American Network Operations and Management - LANOMS 2007, 2007, Petrópolis, RJ. Proceedings of the V Latin American Network Operations and Management - LANOMS 2007, 2007.
  13. MONSORES, M. L. ; ZIVIANI, A. ; RODRIGUES, P. S. S. . Detecção de Anomalias de Tráfego usando Entropia Não-Extensiva. In: XXIV Simpósio Brasileiro de Redes de Computadores - SBRC'2006, 2006, Curitiba, PR. Anais do XXIV Simpósio Brasileiro de Redes de Computadores - SBRC'2006, 2006.

Remote Decision Support on Emergency Healthcare - AToMS (2006-2010)

After an Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI), the sooner the patient is approached, the greater are the chances that pharmacological therapy (using thrombolytics) be more effective than surgical intervention. Nevertheles, the thrombolytic therapy may have hazard effects on AMI patients that present any contraindication to it. As a consequence, paramedics usually hesitate about applying the thrombolytic therapy — preferring to immediately transfer patients to coronary care units (CCUs) — unless cardiologists support their decision. To cope with this scenario, this project aims at developing a ubiquitous telemedicine system called AToMS for supporting cardiologists and paramedics in the remote decision upon the elegibility of AMI patients to pharmacological therapy and the remote monitoring of such AMI patients being transferred to CCUs. The project proposes the extensive use of (possibly heterogeneous) wireless communication technology to allow the paramedic to use the system at the location where the AMI patient is first assisted, thus reducing the delay between the onset of symptoms and the eventual application of proper treatment. All exchange messages among paramedics and cardiologists are recorded, thus rendering a fully auditable system. Implementing such a complex system involves handling a dozen different nonfunctional requirements — security, safety, auditability, heterogeneity, mobility, etc. — alongside its central business logic. To tackle the problems of tangling and scattering typically found in the implementation of systems like that, we are currently investigating the real suitability of aspect-oriented software development techniques throughout the design and implementation of AToMS.

Publications

  1. CORREA, B. S. P. M.; GONÇALVES, B.; TEIXEIRA, I. M.; GOMES, A. T. A.; ZIVIANI, A. AToMS: A ubiquitous teleconsultation system for supporting AMI patients with pre-hospital thrombolysis. International Journal of Telemedicine Applications (IJTA), v. 2011, p. 1-12, 2011.
  2. TEIXEIRA, I. M. ; VICOSO, R. P. ; CORREA, B. S. P. M. ; GOMES, A. T. A. ; ZIVIANI, A. . Suporte Remoto ao Atendimento Médico Emergencial via Dispositivos Móveis. REIC. Revista Eletrônica de Iniciação Científica (Online), v. III, p. 1, 2009
  3. MALINOSKI, I. ; VICOSO, R. P. ; CORREA, B. S. P. M. ; GOMES, A. T. A. ; ZIVIANI, A. . Suporte Remoto ao Atendimento Médico Emergencial via Dispositivos Móveis. In: Workshop de Informática Médica (WIM), 2009, Bento Gonçalves, RS - Brasil. Anais do IX Workshop de Informática Médica, 2009
  4. VIÇOSO, R. P. ; MALINOSKI, I. ; ZIVIANI, A. ; GOMES, A. T. A. Suporte Remoto ao Atendimento Médico Emergencial de Vítimas de Infarto via Dispositivos Móveis. In: Workshop de Trabalhos de Iniciação Científica (WTIC) do WebMedia, 2008, Vila Velha. Anais do V Workshop de Trabalhos de Iniciação Científica do WebMedia, 2008.
  5. GOMES, A. T. A. ; ZIVIANI, A. ; BASTOS, B. F. ; VIÇOSO, R. P. ; SILVA, N. A. S. E. ; CORREA FILHO, W. B. Suporte Remoto ao Atendimento Médico Emergencial com Uso de Eletrocardiografia Digital via Dispositivos Móveis. In: Congresso Brasileiro de Telemedicina e Telessaúde (CBTMS), 2007, Rio de Janeiro, RJ - Brasil. Anais do III Congresso Brasileiro de Telemedicina e Telessaúde, 2007. p. 48-48
  6. GOMES, A. T. A. ; ZIVIANI, A. ; SILVA, N. A. S. E. ; FEIJOO, R. . Towards a Ubiquitous Healthcare System for Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients in Brazil. In: International Workshop On Pervasive and Ubiquitous Health Care (UbiCare), 2006, Pizza, Itália. Proceedings of the Fourth Annual IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerCom), 2006. p. 585-589
  7. CORREA, S. L. ; GOMES, A. T. A. ; ZIVIANI, A.. Desenvolvimento Orientado a Aspectos para um Sistema de Telemedicina. In: Workshop de Informática Médica (WIM), 2006, Vila Velha, ES. Anais do VI Workshop de Informática Médica, 2006.

Mobile Ad Hoc Grids - MoGrid (2005-2009)

Grids are likely to be the mainstay of distributed computing. Grid was firstly applied as a concept for sharing computing resources among wired nodes, but there has been a growing interest in extending this concept to mobile environments. Although significant work has been done towards mobile grids, much of it has followed centralized approaches based on infrastructure wireless networks. We believe that a less restrictive, decentralized approach that supports mobile collaboration in ad-hoc wireless networks can cater for novel grid applications. To address this issue, this project proposes a middleware architecture called MoGrid that orchestrates the distribution of grid tasks among mobile devices in a peer-to-peer (P2P) fashion. A key element of our architecture is the P2PDP protocol, which is used for discovering services and resources in an ad-hoc fashion.

Publications

  1. GOMES, A. T. A. ; ZIVIANI, A. ; LIMA, L. S. ; ENDLER, M. . Performance Evaluation of a Discovery and Scheduling Protocol for Multihop Ad Hoc Mobile Grids. Journal of the Brazilian Computer Society, v. 15, p. 15-30, 2009
  2. GOMES, A. T. A. ; ZIVIANI, A. ; LIMA, L. S. ; ENDLER, M. . Service discovery approaches to mobile peer-to-peer computing. In: Boon-Chong Seet. (Org.). Mobile Peer-to-Peer Computing for Next Generation Distributed Environments: Advancing Conceptual and Algorithmic Applications. Hersey, PA - EUA: IGI Publishing, 2009, v. , p. 437-459
  3. BASTOS, B. F. ; LIMA, L. S. ; GOMES, A. T. A. ; ZIVIANI, A. . Interoperação de Grades Móveis Ad hoc com Grades Fixas. REIC. Revista Eletrônica de Iniciação Científica (Online), v. 8, p. 8, 2008
  4. GOMES, A. T. A. ; ZIVIANI, A. ; BASTOS, B. F. ; LIMA, L. S. . Expanding mobile ad hoc grids with wired grid resources. International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, v. 4, p. 354-370, 2008
  5. BASTOS, B. F. ; LIMA, L. S. ; GOMES, A. T. A. ; ZIVIANI, A. . Interoperação de Grades Móveis Ad hoc com Grades Fixas. In: Workshop de Computação em Grade e Aplicações (WCGA), 2008, Rio de Janeiro, RJ - Brasil. Anais do VI Workshop de Computação em Grade e Aplicações, 2008. p. 97-108
  6. BASTOS, B. F. ; LIMA, L. S. ; GOMES, A. T. A. ; ZIVIANI, A. . Integração de Computação Móvel em Grades Computacionais Fixas. In: Concurso de Trabalhos de Iniciação Científica (CTIC), 2008, Belém, PA - Brasil. Anais do XXVIII Congresso da Sociedade Brasileira de Computação. Porto Alegre, RS : SBC. p. 91-100
  7. GOMES, A. T. A. ; ZIVIANI, A. ; LIMA, L. S. ; ENDLER, M. ; CHELIUS, G. . Mitigating Reply Implosions in Query-based Service Discovery Protocols for Mobile Wireless Ad Hoc Networks. In: International Conference on AD-HOC Networks & Wireless (AdHoc-NOW), 2008, Sophia Antipolis, França. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5198: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on AD-HOC Networks & Wireless. Heidelberg, Alemanha : Springer-Verlag, 2008. p. 29-42
  8. LIMA, L. S. ; GOMES, A. T. A. ; ZIVIANI, A. ; ENDLER, M. . Descoberta de Serviços em Redes de Computadores. In: Antônio Jorge Gomes Abelém; João Crisóstomo Weyl Albuquerque Costa; Noemi de La Rocque Rodriguez; Rodrigo Quites Reis. (Org.). Minicursos do XXV Simpósio Brasileiro de Redes de Computadores (SBRC). Belém-PA: UFPA, 2007, v. , p. 113-162
  9. GOMES, A. T. A. ; ZIVIANI, A. ; LIMA, L. S. ; ENDLER, M. . DICHOTOMY: A Resource Discovery and Scheduling Protocol for Multihop Ad hoc Mobile Grids. In: International Workshop on Context-Awareness and Mobility in Grid Computing (WCAMG), 2007, Rio de Janeiro, RJ - Brasil. Proceedings of the Seventh IEEE International Symposium on Cluster Computing and the Grid and Workshops (CCGrid). Los Alamitos, CA - EUA : IEEE Computer Society, 2007. v. 1. p. 719-724
  10. LIMA, L. S. ; GOMES, A. T. A. ; ZIVIANI, A. ; FRANCA, P. A. ; BASTOS, B. F. ; ENDLER, M. . Reduzindo a Implosão de Respostas em Protocolos de Descoberta de Serviços para Redes sem fio Ad hoc de Saltos Múltiplos. In: Simpósio Brasileiro de Redes de Computadores (SBRC), 2007, Belém, PA - Brasil. Anais do XXV Simpósio Brasileiro de Redes de Computadores, 2007
  11. LIMA, L. S. ; GOMES, A. T. A. ; ZIVIANI, A. ; ENDLER, M. ; SOARES, L. F. G. ; SCHULZE, B. . Peer-to-Peer Resource Discovery in Mobile Grids. In: International Workshop on Middleware for Grid Computing (MGC), 2005, Grenoble. Middleware 2005 Companion: Workshop proceedings, 2005